Gradually, Islam prevailed, although the Chechens own pagan religion was strong until the 19th century. Society was organised along feudal lines, Chechnya was devastated by the Mongol invasions of the 13th century and those of Tamerlane in the 14th. The Vainakh bear the distinction of being one of the few peoples to successfully resist the Mongols and these events were key in the shaping of the Chechen nationhood and their martial-oriented and clan-based society. The Caucasus was also a major competing area for two neighbouring empires, the Ottoman and Persian Empires.
The Chechens, however, never really fell under the rule of either empire, as Russia expanded slowly southwards as early as the 16th century, clashes between Chechens and the Russians became more frequent, and it became three empires competing for the region.
Notable in Chechen history, this particular Russo-Persian War marked the first military encounter between Imperial Russia and the Vainakh, sheikh Mansur led a major Chechen resistance movement in the late 18th century. Much of the campaign was led by General Yermolov who particularly disliked the Chechens, describing them as a bold, angered by Chechen raids, Yermolov resorted to a brutal policy of scorched earth and deportations, he also founded the fort of Grozny in Chechen resistance to Russian rule reached its peak under the leadership of the Dagestani leader Imam Shamil, the Chechens were finally defeated in after a bloody war that lasted for decades, during which they lost most of their entire population.
In the aftermath, large numbers of refugees also emigrated or were deported to the Ottoman Empire. At least one-quarter—and perhaps half—of the entire Chechen population perished in the process, Chechen attempts to regain independence in the s after the fall of the Soviet Union have led to the first and the second war with the new Russian state, starting in Российская империя — The Russian Empire was a state that existed from until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires.
The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in —14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from until , and its German-descended cadet branch, with Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, ethnicity, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state.
Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest, colonization and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of , largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War.
Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system.
However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until , when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation.
Ислам — Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the worlds second-largest religion and the major religion in the world, with over 1. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad.
The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the word of God. Muslims believe that Islam is the original, complete and universal version of a faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses. As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered, certain religious rites and customs are observed by the Muslims in their family and social life, while social responsibilities to parents, relatives, and neighbors have also been defined.
Besides, the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, social, political, Islam began in the early 7th century. Originating in Mecca, it spread in the Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, traders, most Muslims are of one of two denominations, Sunni or Shia.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world, Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission, safeness and peace. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the verb form. The word sometimes has connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran.
In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as a state, Whomsoever God desires to guide. This term has fallen out of use and is said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims religion.
Кавказский эмират — The Caucasus Emirate, also known as the Caucasian Emirate, is a militant Jihadist organisation active in southwestern Russia. Its intention is to expel the Russian presence from the North Caucasus, Caucasus Emirate also refers to the state that the group seeks to establish.
Partially a successor to the secessionist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, it was announced on 7 October , by former President of Ichkeria Dokka Umarov. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Chechen nationalists, led by Dzhokhar Dudayev, many of the surviving nationalists gave up the fight, and by the time Dokka Umarov was declared President of Ichkeria in June , Islamists held increasing influence in the movement.
Zakayev also expressed regret that Umarov had caved in to pressure from provocateurs, Umarov said that he did not need any sanction from the Majlis-ul-Shura or anybody else to declare the Emirate, as it is his duty as a Muslim to establish an Islamic state as required by Sharia.
A few days later Umarov said he had no intention of stepping down, the announcements drove the emirate into a state of turmoil, with several key rebel leaders resigning their loyalty to Umarov. This combined with the death of Muhannad is believed to have paved the way for Hussein Gakayev, Aslambek Vadalov, Umarov eventually died from food poisoning in September By February , many commanders of the Emirates Vilayat Nokhchicho, loyalists within the Emirate released statements denouncing them, and accused the most senior defector, Rustam Asildarov, of betrayal.
On 23 June , ISILs spokesman Abu Mohammad al-Adnani accepted these pledges and announced the creation of a Caucasus Province, adnani named Asildarov as its leader and called on other militants in the region to follow him.
Just because these people are not visible in their cities just now and are not active, in a May interview posted on the pro Caucasus Emirate Kavkaz Center website, Umarov stated Now we know that we should not secede, but must unite with our brothers in faith.
We must recapture Astrakhan, Idel-Ural, Siberia and indigenous Muslim lands, each vilayat contains multiple Fronts or Sectors, which in turn contain multiple Jamaats or units. The vilayats, sectors and local jamaats independently raise funds, recruit members and carry out operations, in May , Umarov established a ruling consultative body, or Majlis al Shura, for the Caucasus Emirate consisting of his top commanders.
This position has held by Anzor Astemirov, Magomed Vagabov. It is located in the North Caucasus, situated in the southernmost part of Eastern Europe, the capital of the republic is the city of Grozny.
Since then there has been a reconstruction and rebuilding process, though sporadic fighting continues in the mountains. According to Leonti Mroveli, the 11th-century Georgian chronicler, the word Caucasian is derived from the Vainakh ancestor Kavkas, dr. Henry Harpending, University of Utah, supports her claims. People living in prehistoric mountain cave settlements used tools, mastered fire, traces of human settlement that date back to 40, BC were found near Lake Kezanoi.
Cave paintings, artifacts, and other evidence indicates continuous habitation for some 8, years. Pottery is known to the region, settlements made out of clay bricks discovered in the plains. In the mountains there were discovered settlements made out of stone and surrounded by walls, — BCE Invention of the wheel, horseback riding, metal works, dishes, armor, daggers, knives, arrow tips.
The Alan tribes build fortresses, castles, and defense walls locking the mountains from the invaders, part of the lowland tribes occupied by Mongols. Ivan the Terrible marries Temryuks daughter Maria Temryukovna, alliance formed to gain the ground in the central Caucasus for the expanding Tsardom of Russia against stubborn Vainakh defenders.
Chechnya was a nation in the Northern Caucasus that fought against foreign rule continually since the 15th century, the Chechens converted over the next few centuries to Sunni Islam, as Islam was associated with resistance to Russian encroachment.
Notable in Chechen history, this particular Russo-Persian War marked the first military encounter between Imperial Russia and the Vainakh, as the Russians took control of the Caspian corridor and moved into Persian-ruled Dagestan, Peters forces ran into mountain tribes. Peter sent a force to subdue them, but the Chechens routed them. Кумыки — Kumyks are a Turkic people living in the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea.
The Russians built forts in their territory in and under Peter I, the upper terraces of the Kumyk plateau, which the Kumyks occupy are very fertile. In recent years Kumyk nationalists such as Salau Aliev have agitated for Kumyk dominance within Daghestan and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed.
The majority of Russians inhabit the state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in Ukraine, Kazakhstan. A large Russian diaspora exists all over the world, with numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel. Russians are the most numerous group in Europe. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion, the Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians. One is русские, which most often means ethnic Russians, another is россияне, which means citizens of Russia. The former word refers to ethnic Russians, regardless of what country they live in, under certain circumstances this term may or may not extend to denote members of other Russian-speaking ethnic groups from Russia, or from the former Soviet Union.
The latter word refers to all people holding citizenship of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity, translations into other languages often do not distinguish these two groups. The name of the Russians derives from the Rus people, the name Rus would then have the same origin as the Finnish and Estonian names for Sweden, Ruotsi and Rootsi. The tribes involved included the Krivichs, Ilmen Slavs, Radimichs, Vyatiches, genetic studies show that modern Russians do not differ significantly from Belarusians and Ukrainians.
Some ethnographers, like Zelenin, affirm that Russians are more similar to Belarusians, such Uralic peoples included the Merya and the Muromians. Outside archaeological remains, little is known about the predecessors to Russians in general prior to AD when the Primary Chronicle starts its records and it is thought that by AD, the Slavs had split linguistically into southern, western, and eastern branches.
Later, both Belarusians and South Russians formed on this ethnic linguistic ground, the same Slavic ethnic population also settled the present-day Tver Oblast and the region of Beloozero. On some occasions ethnic Russian communities, such as Lipovans who settled in the Danube delta or Doukhobors in Canada, after the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War starting in , many Russians were forced to leave their homeland fleeing the Bolshevik regime, and millions became refugees.
It turns east to flow through Chechnya and Dagestan before dividing into two branches which empty into the Caspian Sea, below the city of Kizlyar it forms a swampy river delta around kilometres wide. The river is a key asset in the region, providing irrigation. The main cities on the Terek include Vladikavkaz, Mozdok, several minor hydroelectric power stations dam the Terek, Dzau electrostation, Bekanskaya and Pavlodolskaya.
Leo Tolstoys novel The Cossacks is set on the Terek and amongst its Cossacks, the Terek drains most of the northeast Caucasus east into the Caspian just as its sister, the Kuban River, drains the northwest Caucasus west into the Black Sea. Its major tributaries are the following, in the west a fan of rivers flows east and northeast into the Terek. Then there is the part of the Terek with the Darial Pass. The great northwest bend of the Terek is cut off by the northeast-flowing Sunzha River which catches most of the north-flowing rivers and these are the north-flowing upper Sunzha, the Assa River, the Argun and Khukhulau.
East of these are the Aksay River and the Aktash River which formerly dried up in the lowlands between the Sulak and the Terek, in the east the Sulak River drains most of interior Dagestan and turns east to the Caspian before it reaches the Terek. The capital of Khazaria, Samandar, may have stood on the banks of the river Terek, also on the river Timur defeated Tokhtamysh in Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии.
Текущая версия страницы пока не проверялась опытными участниками и может значительно отличаться от версии , проверенной 11 августа ; проверки требуют 19 правок. Мазаева сообщает о существовании в Чечне в различное время до тайпов и 11 тукхумов Мазаева Т.
Предисловие к книге Хожаев Д. Чеченцы в русско-кавказской войне. Изначальные территории тукхума были расположены в северных районах Дагестана, а представители тайпа происходят из исторической области Лам-Акки в Чеченской республике. Сулак и в районах севернее от них. Также земли между двумя рукавами р. Шина-ГIайсе-юкъ аккинцы называли и область между двумя рукавами р. Чеченский тайп в период его разложения. Архивировано 23 августа года. Мир дому твоему, Происхождение чеченского племени и его расселение.
Национальный состав населения по регионам России. Архивировано 18 февраля года. Чеченские тайпы Этнология Списки: Ниже приведённые списки тайпов гаров, некъий снабжены следующими примечаниями: Наши контакты Стать партнером Написать нам?
Как разместить рекламу на нашем сайте? Как разместить статью на нашем сайте? Как удалить информацию с нашего сайта? Список чеченских тукхумов и тайпов Пятница, 20 Март Оцените материал 1 2 3 4 5 2 голосов.
Советы по трудоустройству отдых с детьми. Назвал именно меня, так как я сейчас занимаюсь политикой, но не состою ни в одной системной партии. Я конечно не один такой, таких как я много, но когда я вчера прочитал это заявление то сразу отнёс его к себе.
Так вот, что я хочу сказать этому Академику и Герою. Ты дискредитировал все, что можно. Ты дискредитировал звание Академика, так как имея 3 класса образования, носишь звание, которое носили величайшие умы России. Ты поставил себя в один ряд с Ломоносовым, Менделеевым, Ландау и другими великими. У меня 3 высших образования, и эти дипломы достались мне с большим трудом и мне стыдно когда у нас такие Академики.
Ты дискредитировал звания Героя России. Я помню те времена когда мы здесь в Красноярске собирали помощь нашим парням, которые ехали воевать в Чечню. Ты тогда бегал по горам и убивал наших ребят. Они теперь лежат в земле, а ты герой России. Ты дискредитировал должность главы региона, когда стал отбирать у бюджетников часть зарплаты и переводить эти деньги в частный фонд. И нам не жалко когда эти деньги идут на зарплаты учителям и врачам. Но когда ты отбираешь у бюджетников деньги и строишь себе дворцы, то это уже за гранью добра и зла.
Так, что иди ты подальше академик и герой и не мешай нормальным, честным, работящим людям обустраивать свою любимую Россию.
Я этого не знал. На нашей территории такого не будет. Те, кто думает иначе, — ошибаются.